HOP Nephrology Index

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This is the Nephrology section of a 86.000 item collection of free medical review articles from PubMed covering 1990-2010, formerly called Metatextbook of Medicine. Papers were selected from a daterange medline search on review articles and tagged appropriately to fit the topics shown below. Resource is enhanced by additional webpages showing DGFN congress abstracts and congress videos. Also, there is a matrix of related topics. Whereas contents are somewhat outdated, it is a rather big collections with items which will remain.

Some topics will be shown in a more structured and selective way, first to do so is kidney development. Click on the green field Development of the kidney to open the example page.

Development Niere (Entwicklung) Development of the kidney



general aspects

Congress abstracts, online, Nephrology and Rheumatology
Kidney (BASKET) Niere (allg)


History of nephrology

Anatomy and Physiology

Development and Regeneration

Development Niere (Entwicklung) Development of the kidney
Endowment Niere (Endowment) Endowment of the kidney
Regeneration Niere (Regeneration) Regeneration of the Kidney
Anatomy Niere (Anatomie) Anatomy of the kidney
Physiology wiki Niere (Physiologie)

Glomerulus, Vascular, Pefusion, Filtration

Glomerulus ggov wiki Niere (Glomerulus) Glomerulus
Mesangial cell wiki Niere (Mesangialzelle) Mesangium
Podocyte [1] Podocyte and Slit Membrane
Neph1 wiki Neph1 Podocyte and Slit Membrane
Nephrin [ ] Podocyte and Slit Membrane
CD2AP wiki CD2AP Podocyte and Slit Membrane
Podocalyxin Podocalyxin Podocyte and Slit Membrane
Podocin Podocin Podocyte and Slit Membrane
Podoplanin Podoplanin Podocyte and Slit Membrane
ZO1 wiki ZO1
ZO2 wiki ZO2
Microcirculation wiki Niere (Mikrozirkulation) Renal Microcirculation
Juxtaglomerular apparatus wiki Niere (Juxtaglomerulaerer Apparat) Juxtaglomerular apparatus
Glomerular permselectivity wiki Niere (Glomerulaere Permselektivitaet) Glomerular filtration and selectivity
Hyperfiltration Niere (Hyperfiltration) Glomerular Hyperfiltration
Glomerular filtration rate ggov wiki AWMF Niere (Glomerulaere Filtrationsrate) Measuring renal function
Adenosine Niere (Adenosin)

Filtration Reabsorption Matching

Tubuloglomerular feedback wiki Niere (Tubuloglomerulaeres Feedback) Juxtaglomerular apparatus
Macula densa [2] Juxtaglomerular apparatus
Connecting tubule glomerular feedback Niere (Connecting tubule glomerular feedback) Juxtaglomerular apparatus
Pressure natriuresis ggov Niere (Drucknatriurese)


Interstitium Niere (Interstitium)
Medulla Niere (Medulla)


Tubulus wiki Niere (Tubulus)
Proximal Tubulus wiki Niere (Tubulus Proximal)
Ascending thin Limb of Henle) Niere (Tubulus thinALH)
Thick ascending Limb of Henle) wiki Niere (Tubulus TALH)
Distal Convoluted Tubulus wiki Niere (Tubulus Distal DCT)
Connecting Tubulus wiki Niere (Tubulus CNT)
Collecting Duct wiki Niere (Tubulus Collecting Duct)
Cortical Collecting Duct Niere (Tubulus CCD)
Medullary Collecting Duct [3]
Intercalated (dark) Cell [4] Intercalated cell
Principal (light) Cell [5]
Signal Transduction of Urinary flow Signaltransduktion Harnfluss


Pelvis Niere (Nierenbecken)
REPOS Cell [6]
Urothelium Urothel

Hormone Systems

ADH AVP Vasopressin ggov wiki ADH AVP Vasopressin
Steroids of Adrenal Origin
Corticosteroids wiki Kortikosteroide
Mineralocorticoids wiki Mineralokortikoid
Aldosterone ggov wiki Aldosteron Aldosterone
Receptor (Mineralcorticoid) Rezeptoren (Mineralkortikoid)
Hyperaldosteronism wiki Aldosteron (Hyperaldosteronismus)
Pseudohypoaldosteronism Aldosteron (Pseudohypoaldosteronismus)
Mineralocorticoid resistance Mineralokortikoid Resistenz
Apparent Mineralocorticoid Excess wiki Apparent Mineralocorticoid Excess
Glucocorticoid remediable Aldosteronism ggov wiki Glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism
Aldosterone escape
Natriuretic Peptides
Natriuretic Peptides Natriuretisches Peptid
Adrenomedullin ggov wiki Adrenomedullin
ANP ggov ANP
BNP ggov BNP
CNP ggov CNP
Urodilatin Urodilatin
Renin Angiotensin System and Related Compouds
Renin Angiotensin System wiki RAAS (Renin Angiotensin System)
Prorenin RAAS (Prorenin)
Renin wiki RAAS (Renin)
Angiotensin converting enzyme1 ggov wiki RAAS (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme1)
Angiotensin converting enzyme2 wiki RAAS (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme2)
Proangiotensinogen12 RAAS (Proangiotensinogen12)
Angiotensinogen ggov RAAS (Angiotensinogen)
Angiotensin ggov RAAS (Angiotensin)
Angiotensin1-7 ggov RAAS (Angiotensin1 7)
AngiotensinII RAAS (AngiotensinII)
AngiotensinIII RAAS (AngiotensinIII)
AngiotensinIV RAAS (AngiotensinIV)
Mas RAAS (Mas)
Receptor (AngiotensinII AT1) wiki Rezeptoren (AngiotensinII AT1)
Receptor (AngiotensinII AT2) ggov wiki Rezeptoren (AngiotensinII AT2)
Receptor (Pro Renin) Rezeptoren (Pro Renin)
Hyporeninism RAAS (Hyporeninismus)
Local renal RAAS RAAS (Lokal Niere)
Local Heart RAAS RAAS (Lokal Herz)
Urotensin Urotensin
Kinin Kallikrein System Kinin Kallikrein System
Receptor (Kinin) Rezeptoren (Kinine)
Of Renal Origin
Medullipin Medullipin
Uromodulin wiki Uromodulin

Nervous System

Afferent renal Nerves) Niere (Nerven afferent)
Efferent renal sympathetic Nerves ERSNA
Head out water immersion ggov Head out Water Immersion
Circumventricular organs ZNS (Zirkumventrikulaere Organe)
Stria vascularis Stria vascularis
Nucleus supraopticus Nucleus supraopticus

Blood vessels (Physiology)

Physiology Blutgefaess (Physiologie)
Permeability ggov Blutgefaess (Permeabilitaet)
Shear stress Blutgefaess (ShearSstress)
Vasodilation Blutgefaess (Vasodilation)
Vasoconstriction) Blutgefaess (Vasokonstriktion)
Endartery Blutgefaess (Endarterie)
Resistance artery Blutgefaess (Resistenzarterie)
Microcirculation Blutgefaess (Mikrozirkulation)

Renal handling of

any solutes&water will be aggregated here

Renal tubular physiology
Urinary concentration
Urinary dilution
Water, renal Handling Wasser (Physiologie Niere) Renal handling of water
Sodium (Physiology Kidney) Natrium (Physiologie Niere) Renal handling of Sodium
Potassium (Physiology renal) Kalium (Physiologie renal) Renal handling of Potassium
Renal handling of bicarbonate and protons
Renal handling of NH3 and NH4
Renal handling of phosphorous
Calcium (Physiology renal) Kalzium (Physiologie Niere) Renal handling of Calcium
Magnesium (Physiology Kidney) Magnesium (Physiologie Niere) Renal handling of Magnesium
Uric acid Transporter (Harnsaeure) Renal handling of Uric acid

Water and Osmolarity (Physiology and Pathophysiology)

Water, Neurophysiology Wasser (Neurophysiologie)
Osmopressor Response Osmopressor response
Water, renal Handling Wasser (Physiologie Niere) Renal handling of water
Volume Contraction ECV Volumenkontraktion EZR

Acid Base (Physiology and Pathophysiology)

Acid Base Balance wiki Saeure Basen Haushalt
Alkalosis, metabolic ggov wiki Alkalose (metabolische)
Anion gap ggov Anionenluecke
Acidosis (BASKET) ggov Azidose (allg)
Acidosis, hyperchloremic Azidose (Hyperchloraemische)
Acidosis, hyperkalemic ggov Azidose (hyperkaliaemisch)
Acidosis, Lactate wiki Azidose (Laktatazidose)
Acidosis, metabolic ggov wiki Azidose (metabolische)
Acidosis, renal tubular ggov wiki Azidose (renal tubulaere)
Acidosis, uremic ggov Azidose (uraemische)
pH extracellular pH (extrazellulaer)
Urine Acid Urin (Sauer)
Blood gases Blutgasanalyse
Renal handling of bicarbonate and protons


Sodium Natrium
Sodium (Salt) Natrium (Salz)
Sodium %20s wiki Natrium (Hypernatriaemie)
Sodium -s wiki Natrium (Hyponatriaemie)
Low salt diet Natrium reduzierte Diaet
Sodium (Physiology Kidney) Natrium (Physiologie Niere) Renal handling of Sodium
Potassium (BASKET) Kalium (allg)
Potassium %20s wiki Kalium (Hyperkaliaemie)
Potassium -s wiki Kalium (Hypokaliaemie)
Potassium Pseudohyperkaliemia Kalium (Pseudohyperkaliaemie)
Potassium (Physiology renal) Kalium (Physiologie renal) Renal handling of Potassium
Phosphorous Phosphor
Phosphate %20s Phosphor (Hyperphosphataemie)
Phosphate -s Phosphor (Hypophosphataemie) Hypophosphatemia
Renal handling of phosphorous
Calcium (BASKET) wiki Kalzium (allg)
Calcium %20s wiki Kalzium (Hyperkalziaemie)
Calcium -s wiki Kalzium (Hypokalziaemie)
Calcium %20u wiki Kalzium (Hyperkalziurie)
Calcium -u wiki Kalzium (Hypokalziurie)
Calcium (Physiology renal) Kalzium (Physiologie Niere) Renal handling of Calcium
Calcium (Physiology Intestines) Kalzium (Physiologie Gastrointestinaltrakt)
Magnesium wiki Magnesium
Magnesium %20s wiki Magnesium (Hypermagnesiaemie)
Magnesium -s wiki Magnesium (Hypomagnesiaemie)
Magnesium %20u Magnesium (Hypermagnesiurie)
Magnesium (Physiology Kidney) Magnesium (Physiologie Niere) Renal handling of Magnesium
Magnesium (Physiology Intestines) [7]

Channels and Transporters - Regulation

WNK1 wiki WNK1
WNK2 wiki WNK2
WNK3 wiki WNK3
WNK4 wiki WNK4
G protein coupled ion channel G Protein verbundener Ionenkanal

Channels for Ions Water and Metabolites

Ion channels and Ion transporters
Ion channel (BASKET) wiki Ionenkanal (allg) Ion channels and molecular transporters
Transporter (BASKET) wiki Transporter (allg) Ion channels and molecular transporters
Structure Transporter (Struktur)
Anion Ionenkanal (Anion)
Phosphate Transporter (Phosphat)
Sulfate Transporter (Sulfat)
Chloride Ionenkanal (Chlorid)
Chloride and bicarbonate Transporter (Chlorid und Bikarbonat)
Cation and chloride Transporter (Kation und Chlorid)
Potassium wiki Ionenkanal (Kalium)
Potassium and proton Transporter (Kalium und Proton)
Potassium and chloride Transporter (Chlorid und Kalium)
Sodium and potassium Transporter (Natrium und Kalium)
Sodium potassium and chloride wiki Transporter (Natrium Kalium und Chlorid)
Sodium and chloride wiki Transporter (Natrium und Chlorid)
Sodium and iodine Transporter (Natrium und Jod)
Sodium and bicarbonate Transporter (Natrium und Bikarbonat)
Sodium and phosphate Transporter (Natrium und Phosphat)
Sodium ENaC wiki Ionenkanal (Natrium ENaC)
Sodium wiki Ionenkanal (Natrium)
Sodium and proton Transporter (Natrium und Proton)
Sodium and calcium Transporter (Natrium und Kalzium)
Metal divalent Transporter (Metall divalent)
Calcium wiki Ionenkanal (Kalzium)
Calcium Transporter (Kalzium)
Calcium store operated Transporter (Kalzium store operated)
Magnesium Ionenkanal (Magnesium)
Magnesium wiki Transporter (Magnesium)
Zinc Transporter (Zink)
Copper Transporter (Kupfer)
Proton Ionenkanal (Proton)
Proton Transporter (Proton)
Proton vacuolar Transporter (Proton vakuolaer)
V ATPase Transporter (V ATPase)
TRP Family Ionenkanal (TRP Familie) TRP channels
Ion channel and Transporter (not exactly characterized) Ionenkanalund Transporter (Unzureichend charakterisiert)
Organic molecules Transporter (Organische Molekuele)
Amino acid Transporter (Aminosaeure)
Ornithine and citrulline Transporter (Ornithin und Citrullin)
Ammonia Transporter (Ammonium)
Urea Transporter (Harstoff)
Uric acid Transporter (Harnsaeure) Renal handling of Uric acid
Glucose ggov Transporter (Glucose)
Sodium and glucose Transporter (Natrium und Glukose)
Hexoses Transporter (Hexose)
Nucleotides and sugar Transporter (Nukleotid und Zucker)
Peptides Transporter (Peptid als Substrat)
Aquaporin ggov wiki Aquaporin


general Pathology

Pathology Niere (Pathologie) Nephropathology

Acute Renal Failure

Acute Renal Failure wiki Niere (Versagen Akutes)


Renal artery stenosis AWMF Nierenarterie Stenose
Renal artery aneurysm Nierenarterie Aneurysma
Renal vein thrombosis wiki Nierenvenenthrombose
Cholesterol embolism ggov wiki Cholesterinembolie
Nephroangiosclerosis malignant Nephroangiosklerose maligne
Hyoertensive Nephropathy Nephropathie (Hypertensiv)
Arterial hypertension (Complications Kidney) Arterielle Hypertonie (Folgeerkrankung Niere)

Infectious non-viral and Post-Infectious Reactive

Urinary tract infection ggov AWMF Harnwege (Infektion)
Pyelonephritis Niere (Pyelonephritis)
Emphysematous pyelonephritis Emphysematoese Pyelonephritis
Malakoplakia Malakoplakie
Abscess Niere (Abszess)
Prainfectious Kidney Diseases Niere (Erkrankungen parainfektioes)
Rheumatic fever Rheumatisches Fieber
Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis wiki Glomerulonephritis (Poststreptokokken)
Streptococcus Lancefield A Streptokokken Gruppe A
Shunt nephritis wiki Glomerulonephritis (Shunt Nephritis)
Endocarditis ggov Herz (Endokarditis)
Osteomyelitis AWMF Osteomyelitis
EHEC ggov AWMF EHEC Entero haemorrhagischer E coli
Shigella Shigella
Shiga Toxin wiki Shiga Toxin
VTEC VTEC verotoxigenic Escherichia coli
Verotoxin Verotoxin
Yersinia Yersinia
Typhus Typhus
Legionella Legionella
Lepra Lepra
Tuberculosis AWMF Tuberkulose
Babesiosis wiki AWMF Babesiose
Malaria wiki AWMF Malaria
Leptospirosis Leptospirose
Brucellosis ggov AWMF Brucellose
Syphilis AWMF Syphilis
Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmose
Schistosomiasis Schistosoma
Filariasis Filariasis
Trichinellosis Trichinellose
Echinococcosis ggov Echinokokkus
Scrub typhus Scrub Typhus

Viral and secondary viral

HIVAN wiki Niere (Erkrankung viral HIV HIVAN)
Viral Kidney Diseases excl HIV Niere (Erkrankung viral ohne HIV)
Hepatitis B ggov AWMF Hepatitis B
Hepatitis C ggov wiki AWMF Hepatitis C
Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome
Bunyaviridae ggov Bunyaviridae
Hanta virus ggov AWMF Hantavirus
BK Virus ggov BK Virus
JC Virus wiki AWMF JC Virus
TT virus TT Virus
EBV [8]
VZV [9]
Measles AWMF Masern
Coxsackie Virus ggov wiki AWMF Coxsackie Virus
Mumps AWMF Mumps
Rubella AWMF Roeteln
Parvovirus B19 Parvovirus B19

Toxic and Traumatic

Contrast Nephropathy wiki Niere (Kontrastmittel induzieres ANV)
Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis Nephrogene systemische Fibrose
Nephrotoxicity [10]
Analgesics nephropathy ggov Niere (Analgetika Nephropathie)
Phenacetin Phenacetin
Balkan nephropathy Niere (Balkan Nephropathie)
Aristolochic acid Aristolochic Acid
Gold ggov Gold
Mercury AWMF Quecksilber
Penicillamine wiki Penicillamin
Captopril Captopril
Heroin ggov Heroin
Silicosis AWMF Silikose
nexist Radiation nephritis [11]
Traumatology Niere (Traumatologie)

Endogenous Toxic and Deposited and Functional

Diabetes insipidus (central) wiki AWMF Diabetes insipidus (zentral)
Hepatorenal syndrome ggov wiki AWMF Hepatorenales Syndrom Hepatorenal syndrome
Cardiorenal syndrome Kardiorenales Syndrom
Myoglobinuria Myoglobinurie
Rhabdomyolysis wiki Rhabdomyolyse
Malignant neuroleptic syndrome Malignes neuroleptisches Syndrom
Guillain Barre ggov AWMF Guillain Barre Syndrom
Sickle cell anemia wiki AWMF Anaemie (Sichelzellanaemie)
Lipoprotein glomerulopathy Glomerulopathie (Lipoprotein Glomerulopathie)
Cholesterol embolism ggov wiki Cholesterinembolie
Obesity Nephropathy Adipositas (Folgeerkrankung Niere)
Fibrillary glomerulopathy ggov Glomerulopathie (Fibrillaere Glomerulopathie)
Immunotactoid glomerulopathy Glomerulopathie (Immunotactoide)
Amyloidosis ggov wiki AWMF Amyloidose
nexist Hyperglobulinemic states [12]
Multiple myeloma and other plasma cell dyscrasias wiki AWMF PCD (Multiples Myelom und andere Plasmazelldyskrasien)
Multiple myeloma light chain producing PCD (Leichtketten Myelom)
Macroglobulinemia Waldenstrom wiki PCD (Makroglobulinaemie Waldenstroem)
Plasmacytoma extramedullary PCD (Plasmozytom extramedullaer)
nexist Heavy chain disease [13]
Cryoglobulinemia wiki Kryoglobulinaemie
nexist Hypergammaglobulinemia idiopathic [14]
Liver Cirrhosis wiki AWMF Leber (Zirrhose)
Hepatitis (BASKET) ggov Hepatitis (allg)
Sjogren's syndrome wiki Sjoegren Syndrom
Systemic lupus erythematosus wiki AWMF Systemischer Lupus Erythematosus Systemic lupus erythematosus
Rheumatoid Arthritis ggov wiki AWMF Arthritis (rheumatoide)
Seronegative Arthritis Arthritis (Seronegativ)
nexist Hyperglobulinemic purpura [15]
Alveolitis, fibrosing cryptogenic ggov Alveolitis (fibrosierend kryptogen)
IgA nephropathy wiki IgA Nephropathie
Henoch Schoenlein purpura ggov wiki AWMF Henoch Schoenlein Purpura
C1q nephropathy Niere (C1q Nephropathie)
nexist IgM nephropathy [16]

Autoimmune by specific Antibodies

Goodpasture's syndrome ggov wiki Niere (Goodpasture Syndrom)
Glomerulonephritis (membraneous) wiki Glomerulonephritis (membranoese)
Glomerulonephritis (membranoproliferative) Glomerulonephritis (membranoproliferative)
nexist C3NEF [17]
Lipodystrophy Lipodystrophie

Contact Systems and Innate. Autoinflammatory see hereditary mediators

Antiphospholipid syndrome wiki Antiphospholipid Syndrom
Thrombotic microangiopathies wiki Thrombotische Mikroangiopathien
Hemolytic uremic syndrome ggov AWMF Haemolytisch uraemisches Syndrom
Factor H (Complement) Faktor H (Komplementsystem)
CD46 CD46
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura wiki Thrombotisch thrombozytopenische Purpura
Von Willebrand s factor wiki Von Willebrand Faktor
HELLP syndrome HELLP Syndrom
Preeclampsia Praeeklampsie


Glomerulonephritis (BASKET) ggov wiki Glomerulonephritis (allg)
Systemic lupus erythematosus wiki AWMF Systemischer Lupus Erythematosus
Receptor (Complement) Rezeptoren (Komplement)
nexist Complement (CR1) [18]
Immunoglobulin A deficiency Immunglobulin A Mangel
nexist CD4 NULL [19]

Glomerular unless cited above

(hered forms)
Minimal change nephrotic syndrome wiki Niere (MCNS Lipoidnephrose)
FSGS wiki Niere (FSGS)
Glomerulosclerosis ggov Glomerulosklerose
nexist Tip lesion [20]
Collapsing Glomerulopathy ggov Glomerulopathie (Collapsing)
Glomerulocystic nephropathy ggov Glomerulopathie (Glomerulozystische Nephropathie)

Vasculitis and Systemic Diseases and Rheumatic and Autoinflammatory

Vasculitis (BASKET) wiki AWMF Vaskulitis (allg)
ANCA associated Vasculitides wiki AWMF Vaskulitis (ANCA assoziiert)
Wegener's granulomatosis wiki Wegener Granulomatose
Microscopic polyangiitis wiki Mikroskopische Polyangiitis
Vasculitis (Eye) Vaskulitis (Auge)
Vasculitis (Imaging) Vaskulitis (Bildgebung)
Vasculitis (Nervous system) AWMF Vaskulitis (Nervensystem)
Takayasu arteriitis wiki Takayasu Arteriitis
Horton s disease wiki Horton Erkrankung
Kawasaki s disease wiki Kawasaki Erkrankung
Pulmo renal syndromes wiki Niere (Pulmo Renales Syndrom)
Polyarteriitis nodosa wiki Polyarteriitis nodosa
Churg Strauss syndrome ggov wiki Churg Strauss Syndrom
Hypereosinophilic syndrome Hypereosinophiles Syndrom
Mixed connective tissue disease wiki AWMF MCTD Mischkollagenose
Scleroderma wiki AWMF Sklerodermie
Polychondritis Polychondritis
Sjogren s syndrome wiki Sjoegren Syndrom
Dermatomyositis wiki AWMF Dermatomyositis
Autoinflammatory syndromes ggov AWMF Autoinflammatorische Syndrome
nexist Muckle Wells Syndrome Muckle Wells Syndrom
Ankylosing spondylitis ggov wiki Ankylosierende Spondylitis
Arthritis, juvenile idiopathic ggov wiki AWMF Arthritis (juvenil idiopathisch)
Arthritis, NOD2 associated ggov Arthritis (NOD2 assoziiert)
Arthritis, reactive) ggov wiki AWMF Arthritis (reaktive)
Arthritis (Model) Arthritis (Tiermodell)
Felty s syndrome Felty Syndrom
Still s disease Still Erkrankung
Spondyloarthritis Spondyloarthritis
Behcet ggov wiki Behcet
Sarcoidosis AWMF Sarkoidose
Berylliosis ggov AWMF Berylliose
Osteoarthritis wiki AWMF Osteoarthritis
Rheumatology (BASKET) wiki Rheumatologie (allg)
SAPHO syndrome SAPHO Syndrom
Raynaud s syndrome wiki Raynaud Syndrom

Hereditary and Teratogenic

Kidney (Inherited diseases) wiki Niere (Hereditaere Erkrankungen) Hereditary diseases of the kidney
Kidney (Malformation) Niere (Fehlbildung) Malformation of the Kidneys
Kidney (Endowment) Niere (Endowment)
Oligomeganephronia Oligomeganephronie
HNF1beta HNF1beta
Developmental Field Defects
nexist Kidney (Agenesis) [21]
nexist Caudal regression syndrome [22]
Sirenomelia Sirenomyelie
nexist Polytopic acrorenal developmental field defect [23]
Exstrophy epispadia complex ggov Exstrophy Epispadia Komplex
nexist Robinson s defect [24]
nexist Cloaca (Exstrophy) [25]
Mayer Rokitansky Kuster Hauser syndrome Mayer Rokitansky Kuester Hauser Syndrom
Hypospadia Hypospadie
Cleft plate AWMF Lippenkiefergaumenspalte
nexist Pallister Hall syndrome hamartoblastoma [26]
Goldenhar s syndrome Goldenhar Syndrom Goldenhar s syndrome
nexist Poland anomaly [27]
nexist Radius (Aplasia) [28]
nexist Syndactyly [29]
nexist Hand and wrist (Malformation) Hand und Handgelenk (Fehlbildung)
nexist Acrorenal field (Development) [30]
Spina bifida Spina bifida
Cystic dysplastic and tubulointerstitial - associations
CHARGE syndrome ggov CHARGE Syndrom
MURCKS association MURCKS Assoziation
VACTERL association VACTERL Erkrankung
Opitz syndrome Opitz Syndrom
nexist Hydrolethalus syndrome [31]
Disruption Sequences toxic
Fetal alcohol syndrome ggov wiki AWMF Fetales Alkohol Syndrom
Diabetes mellitus (Child of diabetic mother) AWMF Diabetes mellitus (Kind der diabetischen Mutter)
nexist Fetal warfarin syndrome [32]
Thalidomide Thalidomid
Diethylstilbestrol ggov Diethylstilbestrol
Rubella AWMF Roeteln
Cystic dysplastic and tubulointerstitial - obstructive
Urinary tract (Obstructive uropathy) wiki AWMF Harnwege (Obstruktive Uropathie)
Urinary tract (Vesico ureteral reflux) AWMF Harnwege (Vesiko ureteraler Reflux)
Urinary tract (Malformation) Harnwege (Fehlbildung)
Urethra (Urethral valve) Harnroehre (Urethralklappe)
Urethra (Stricture and stenosis) ggov Harnroehre (Stenose)
Urethra (Diverticulum) Harnroehre (Divertikel)
Prune Belly syndrome Prune Belly Syndrom
nexist Oligohydramnios Potter [33]
Ureter (Ureteropelvic junction obstruction) Harnleiter (Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction)
nexist Urinary tract (Ureterovesical junction obstruction) [34]
Megaureter Megaureter
nexist Urinary bladder (Megacystis) [35]
Urinary bladder (Neurogenic bladder) [36]
Cystic dysplastic and tubulointerstitial - primary
nexist Medullary sponge kidney [37]
nexist Medullary cystic disease [38]
Uromodulin wiki Uromodulin
Kidney (Nephronophthisis) Niere (Nephronophthise)
Senior Loken s syndrome Senior Loken Syndrom
Kidney (Polycystic kidney disease) Niere (Polyzystische Nierendegeneration)
Polycystin Polycystin
Cilia wiki Zilie Cilia and Ciliopathies
nexist PKHD1 [39]
Glomerulopathy (Glomerulocystic nephropathy) ggov Glomerulopathie (Glomerulozystische Nephropathie)
Liver (Fibrosis congenital) Leber (Fibrose kongenital)
Cystic dysplastic and tubulointerstitial - secondary
Jeune s syndrome Jeune Syndrom
Alstrom s syndrome Alstrom Syndrom
Bardet Biedl syndrome ggov Bardet Biedl Syndrom
nexist Laurence Moon Biedl is Bardet Biedl [40]
nexist TTC8 [41]
nexist Ivemark s syndrome [42]
Ellis van Creveld s syndrome ggov Ellis van Creveld Syndrom
nexist Robert s syndrome [43]
Glutaric aciduria type II Glutaric Aciduria type II
nexist Langer s Brachymesomelia renal syndrome [44]
nexist Ulbrigth s syndrome [45]
nexist Huber s syndrome [46]
nexist Leclerc s syndrome [47]
Rubinstein Taybi syndrome wiki Rubinstein Taybi Syndrom
Russell Silver s syndrome Russell Silver Syndrom
nexist Goeminne s syndrome [48]
Kallmann s syndrome Kallmann Syndrom
nexist Oro facio digital dysplasia OFD1 [49]
nexist Swyer s syndrome [50]
nexist Daentl s syndrome [51]
nexist Crome s syndrome [52]
Galloway Mowat s syndrome ggov Galloway Mowat Syndrom
nexist Passwell s syndrome [53]
Johanson Bizzard s syndrome Johanson Bizzard Syndrom
nexist Hunter Jurenka syndrome [54]
nexist Ozer s syndrome [55]
nexist Roberts syndrome SC syndrome [56]
Marden Walker s syndrome Marden Walker Syndrom
nexist Winter s syndrome [57]
nexist Gil Gibernar syndrome [58]
nexist TAR Thrombocytopenia absent radius syndrome [59]
nexist Fryns syndrome [60]
nexist Goldston s syndrome [61]
nexist Miranda s syndrome [62]
nexist Kaufmann s syndrome [63]
Meckel s syndrome Meckel Syndrom
Walker Warburg syndrome wiki Walker Warburg Syndrom
Smith Lemli Opitz syndrome Smith Lemli Opitz Syndrom
nexist Sinclair Smith sndrome [64]
Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata Rhizomelic Chondrodysplasia Punctata
nexist Saladino Noonan syndrome short rib polydactyly I [65]
nexist Majewski s syndrome short rib polydactyly II [66]
nexist Elejalde s syndrome acrocephalopolydactylous dyplasia [67]
Schinzel Giedion syndrome Schinzel Giedion Syndrom
Cockayne s syndrome ggov Cockayne Syndrom
Cornelia de Lange syndrome ggov Cornelia de Lange Syndrom
nexist Ochoa s syndrome [68]
nexist Myotonic dystrophy w polycystic kidney [69]
Townes Brocks syndrome Townes Brocks Syndrom
Saethre Chotzen syndrome Saethre Chotzen Syndrom
BOR Syndrome [70]
Alagille s syndrome ggov wiki Alagille Syndrom
Leopard syndrome [71]
EEC syndrome ggov EEC Syndrom
Von Hippel Lindau syndrome wiki Von Hippel Lindau Syndrom
VHL wiki VHL
Klippel Trenaunay syndrome Klippel Trenaunay Syndrom
Tuberous sclerosis wiki Tuberoese Sklerose
TSC1 [72]
TSC2 [73]
Ehlers Danlos syndrome ggov wiki Ehlers Danlos Syndrom
nexist Lundin Olow familial renal dysplasia [74]
Peutz Jeghers syndrome Peutz Jeghers Syndrom
nexist Meckel Gruber syndrome dysencephalia splanchnocystica [75]
nexist MSK1 [76]
nexist MSK3 [77]
nexist FG Syndrome [78]
nexist Bowen Conradi syndrome [79]
nexist Rudiger Syndrome [80]
nexist Freeman Sheldon syndrome cranio carpo tarsal dysplasia [81]
Neurofibromatosis wiki Neurofibromatose
nexist Epidermal nevus syndrome [82]
Blue rubber bleb nevus Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus
Gorlin Goltz phacomatosis [83]
Gardner s syndrome ggov wiki Gardner Syndrom
nexist Erythrocyte (Spherocytosis) [84]
Wiskott Aldrich syndrome Wiskott Aldrich Syndrom
nexist Platelets (Thrombocytopenia familial) [85]
DiGeorge s syndrome ggov DiGeorge Syndrom
Catch22 ggov Catch22
Hemophilia A wiki Haemophilie A
Hemophilia B wiki Haemophilie B
nexist Meltzer s syndrome [86]
Epidermolysis bullosa AWMF Epidermolysis bullosa
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia Hypohidrotische ektodermale Dysplasie
Bloom s syndrome ggov Bloom Syndrom
nexist Mammo renal syndrome [87]
nexist Netherton s syndrome [88]
CHILD syndrome CHILD Syndrom
Marfan s syndrome Marfan Syndrom
Cutis laxa syndrome Cutis laxa syndrome
nexist Pseudoxanthoma elasticum wiki Pseudoxanthoma elasticum
nexist Frontonasal dysplasia [89]
nexist Weyers Thier syndrome [90]
Klippel Feil syndrome Klippel Feil Syndrom
nexist Elsahy Waters syndrome [91]
nexist Spondylocostal dysostosis [92]
nexist Cerebro costo mandibular syndrome [93]
nexist Aglossia adactyly syndrome [94]
nexist Camptobrachydactyly [95]
nexist Syndactyly V [96]
nexist Dieker Opitz acro renal syndrome [97]
nexist Acro renal mandibular syndrome [98]
nexist Townes Kuvnit syndrome REAR syndrome [99]
nexist IVIC syndrome [100]
nexist Weyer s syndrome [101]
nexist Pallister s syndrome [102]
Anemia (Fanconi s anemia) ggov Anaemie (Fanconi Anaemie)
nexist Hand foot ... syndrome [103]
nexist Osteolysis w nephropathy [104]
nexist Hajdu Cheney syndrome [105]
Achondrogenesis ggov Achondrogenese
Thanatophoric dwarfism Thanatophoric Dwarfism
Campomelic dysplasia Campomelic dysplasia
nexist Metatropic dysplasia Metatropic dysplasia
Robinow s syndrome Robinow Syndrom
nexist Larsen syndrome [106]
nexist Oto palato digital syndrome [107]
nexist Dyschondrosteosis [108]
nexist Schwachmann s syndrome [109]
nexist Giedion Langer Syndrome [110]
Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome Trichorhinophalangeales Syndrom
nexist Marble brain disease [111]
nexist Melnick Needles syndrome [112]
nexist Frontometaphyseal dysplasia [113]
Baller Gerold syndrome ggov Baller Gerold Syndrom
Antley Bixler syndrome ggov Antley Bixler Syndrom
nexist Apert s syndrome [114]
Waardenburg s syndrome wiki Waardenburg Syndrom
nexist Carpenter s syndrome [115]
nexist C Trigonocephaly [116]
Juberg Hayward s syndrome Juberg Hayward Syndrom
Caroli s syndrome ggov Caroli Syndrom
nexist Lutz Richner syndrome [117]
nexist Baber s syndrome [118]
nexist Hepatic steatosis familial [119]
nexist Intestinal pseudoobstruction familial [120]
Intestinal pseudoobstruction AWMF Intestinale Pseudoobstruktion
nexist MMIH syndrome [121]
nexist Intestinal lymphangiectasia [122]
Hirschsprung s disease AWMF Hirschsprung Erkrankung
Crohn s disease AWMF Crohn Erkrankung
Colitis ulcerosa ggov wiki AWMF Colitis ulcerosa
Inflammatory bowel diseases ggov wiki Chronisch entzuendliche Darmerkrankungen
nexist Kaufman McKusick syndrome [123]
nexist Meckel Gruber syndrome [124]
nexist Simopoulos syndrome [125]
nexist Passarge s syndrome [126]
Riley Day syndrome AWMF Riley Day Syndrom
Myotonic dystrophy AWMF Myotone Dystrophie
nexist Winter s syndrome [127]
nexist Braun Berger syndrome [128]
nexist Cayler s syndrome [129]
nexist Eastman Bixler syndrome [130]
Kartagener s syndrome Primary ciliary dyskinesia wiki Kartagener Syndrom Primary ciliary dyskinesia
Diaphragmatic hernia (congenital) ggov AWMF Zwerchfellhernie (Kongenital)
Magen (Pylorus stenosis) [131]
nexist Mainzer Saladino syndrome [132]
nexist McCance syndrome [133]
nexist Denys oculo cerebro renal syndrome [134]
nexist Oculo renal cerebellar syndrome [135]
nexist Biemond s syndome II [136]
nexist Lacrimo auricular dento digital syndrome [137]
Sorsby fundus dystrophy Sorsby Fundus Dystrophie
Fraser s syndrome ggov Fraser Syndrom
Lenz microphthalmia [138]
nexist Abrozzo Erickson syndrome [139]
nexist Facio oculo acustico renal syndrome [140]
nexist HMC syndrome [141]
Seckel s syndrome Seckel Syndrom
nexist Pena Shokeir syndrome [142]
nexist Neu Laxova syndrome [143]
Coffin Siris syndrome ggov Coffin Siris Syndrom
nexist Dubowitz syndrome Dubowitz Syndrom
Noonan s syndrome wiki Noonan Syndrom
Lipodystrophy Lipodystrophie
nexist Seip Berardinelli s syndrome [144]
nexist Lawrence s syndrome [145]
nexist Barraquer Simons syndrome [146]
nexist Leprechaunism [147]
Marshall Smith s syndrome Marshall Smith Syndrom
Adams Oliver syndrome Adams Oliver Syndrom
Wiskott Aldrich syndrome Wiskott Aldrich Syndrom
nexist Amelogenesis imperfecta and nephrocalcinosis enamel renal syndrome [148]
nexist Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita
nexist Barakat s syndrome [149]
nexist Cardio vertebro renal syndrome [150]
nexist Carnitine deficiency myopathy [151]
nexist Cerebro oculo facio skeletal syndrome [152]
Cohen s syndrome ggov Cohen Syndrom
nexist Coloboma of macula w type b brachydactyly [153]
Cystic fibrosis wiki AWMF Zystische Fibrose
nexist Dyssegmental dwarfism [154]
nexist Facio cardio renal syndrome [155]
nexist Fatty metamorphosis of the viscera [156]
nexist Femoral facial syndrome [157]
nexist Goltz focal dermal hypoplasia [158]
nexist Leukonychia totalis [159]
nexist N syndrome [160]
nexist Jebert Hayward oro cranio digital syndrome [161]
Osteogenesis imperfecta Osteogenesis imperfecta
nexist Osteolysis hereditary of carpal bones w nephropathy [162]
nexist Naurnoff polydactyly w hereditary chondrodystrophy type iii [163]
nexist Pulmonary stenosis w congenital nephrosis [164]
Rieger s syndrome Rieger Syndrom
Schwartz Jampel syndrome Schwartz Jampel Syndrom
Shprintzen s syndrome Shprintzen Syndrom
nexist Testicular regression xy gonadal agenesis [165]
nexist Thallassemia B [166]
nexist Thyrotoxicosis renal disease absent frontal sinuses [167]
nexist Trimethadione [168]
nexist Wohltmann Caglar Syndrome [169]
Cystic dysplastic and tubulointerstitial - chromosome aberrations
nexist Trisomy8 [170]
Trisomy9 Trisomie9
Trisomy13 Trisomie13
Edward s syndrome Edward Syndrom
Down s syndrome ggov Down Syndrom
Triploidy Triploiditaet
Deletion 5p syndrome Deletion 5p Syndrom
nexist Deletion 9p syndrome [171]
nexist Deletion 11p syndrome [172]
Miller Dieker syndrome Miller Dieker Syndrom
nexist Deletion 18q syndrome [173]
nexist Cateye syndrome [174]
nexist Duplication 4p syndrome [175]
nexist Duplication 10q syndrome [176]
nexist Duplication 20p syndrome [177]
Turner s syndrome Turner Syndrom
nexist 47XYY snydome [178]
Klinefelter s syndrome Klinefelter Syndrom
Metabolic - Lysosomal
Cystinosis wiki Zystinose Cystinosis
nexist CTNS [179]
Fabry s disease ggov Fabry Erkrankung
Agalsidase alfa Agalsidase alfa
alpha Galactosidase A alpha Galaktosidase A
Angiokeratoma corporis diffusum Angiokeratoma corporis diffusum
Gangliosidosis ggov Gangliosidose
nexist Gangliosidosis GM1 Landing s disease [180]
Ganglioside GM1 wiki Gangliosid GM1
nexist GM1 ganglioside beta Galactosidase [181]
Gangliosidosis GM2 ggov Gangliosidose GM2
Tay Sachs disease Tay Sachs Erkrankung
beta Hexosaminidase A beta Hexosaminidase A
Sandhoff disease Sandhoff Erkrankung
beta Hexosaminidase A beta Hexosaminidase A
nexist beta Hexosaminidase B [182]
Metachromatic leukodystrophy AWMF Metachromatische Leukodystrophie
nexist Arylsulfatase A [183]
Glycogenosis ggov wiki Glykogenose
nexist Glucosyl ceramidosis [184]
Gaucher s disease ggov Gaucher Erkrankung
nexist beta Glucosidase [185]
Pompe s disease [186]
alpha Glucosidase Alpha Glucosidase
nexist Multiple sulfatase deficiency [187]
nexist Arylsulfatase A [188]
Arylsulfatase B Arylsulfatase B
Steroid sulfatase Steroid Sulfatase
nexist Sulfoiduronate sulfatase [189]
Farber s disease [190]
Ceramidase wiki Ceramidase
nexist Niemann Pick disease A [191]
Sphingomyelinase wiki Sphingomyelinase
nexist Wolman s disease [192]
nexist Lysosomal acid lipase [193]
Hurler s syndrome Hurler syndrome
nexist alpha L iduronidase [194]
Scheie s syndrome Scheie Syndrom
nexist alpha L iduronidase [195]
nexist Sanfilippo s syndrome [196]
nexist alpha N acetyl hexosaminidase [197]
Von Gierke s disease Von Gierke Erkrankung
McArdle s syndrome McArdle Syndrom
nexist Sialidosis 1 [198]
nexist Mucolipidosis I [199]
nexist Cherry red spot myoclonus syndrome [200]
Sialic acid wiki Neuraminsaeure
nexist alpha Neuraminidase [201]
nexist Sialidosis 2 [202]
nexist alpha Neuraminidase beta Galactosidase stabilizer protein [203]
I cell disease I Cell Disease
nexist UDP N acetylglucosamine 1 phosphotransferase [204]
Glutamyl ribose 5 phosphate storage disease [205]
Metabolic - Peroxisomal
Zellweger s syndrome Zellweger Syndrom
Oxalosis wiki Oxalose
Oxalic acid (Hyperoxaluria) Oxalsaeure (Hyperoxalurie)
Oxalic acid wiki Oxalsaeure
Calcium oxalate Kalzium Oxalat
Alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase wiki Alanin Glyoxylat Aminotransferase
nexist Adrenoleukodystrophy neonatal lethal [206]
Acatalasemia Acatalasaemie
CAT Catalase CAT Catalase
Refsum s disease Refsum Erkrankung
nexist Phytanic acid oxidase [207]
Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata Rhizomelic Chondrodysplasia Punctata
Metabolic - Others
LCAT deficiency LCAT Mangel
nexist Wochner s syndrome [208]
nexist Hyperpipecolic acidemia [209]
Glutaric aciduria type II Glutaric Aciduria type II
nexist Nezelof s syndrome [210]
nexist Thyro cerebro renal syndrome [211]
nexist PTH (Hyperparathyreoidism neonatal) [212]
PTH (Hyperparathyreoidism BASKET) PTH (Hyperparathyreoidismus alle Formen)
nexist Adrenogenital syndrome [213]
21 hydroxylase deficiency ggov wiki 21 Hydroxylase Mangel
Cushing s disease AWMF Cushing Erkrankung
Cushing s syndrome AWMF Cushing Syndrom
nexist Conn s syndrome [214]
Aldosterone (Pseudohypoaldosteronism) Aldosteron (Pseudohypoaldosteronismus)
Aldosterone Hypoaldosteronism) [215]
Wolcott Rallison syndrome Wolcott Rallison Syndrom
Menkes s disease wiki Menkes Erkrankung
nexist Frucrosemia [216]
nexist Hypermethioninemia [217]
Metabolic - Purines and Pyrimidines
nexist Hyperuricaemia familial [218]
Uric acid (Hyperuricemia) Harnsaeure (Hyperurikaemie)
nexist Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase overacticity [219]
Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase Phosphoribosylpyrophosphat Synthetase
Lesch Nyhan syndrome Lesch Nyhan Syndrom
nexist Adenine phosphoribosyl transferase deficiency [220]
Adenine phosphoribosyl transferase Adenin Phosphoribosyl Transferase
nexist Xanthine oxidase deficiency [221]
Xanthine oxidase Xanthin Oxidase
nexist Uric acid (Hypouricemia) [222]
Mediators, Complement
alpha1 Antitrypsin and its deficiency A1AT ggov wiki Alpha1 Antitrypsin und dessen Mangel A1AT
Complement system (Deficiency) Komplementsystem (Mangel)
C1q C1q
nexist C1r [223]
nexist C1s [224]
nexist C2 [225]
nexist C3 [226]
nexist C4 [227]
nexist C5 [228]
nexist C6 [229]
nexist C7 [230]
nexist C8 [231]
nexist C9 [232]
nexist Factor B (Complemet system) [233]
Factor H (Complement) Faktor H (Komplementsystem)
Properdin Properdin
nexist Factor I (Complement system) [234]
C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency ggov AWMF C1 Esterase Inhibitor Mangel
CD46 CD46
CFHR5 nephropathy Niere (CFHR5 Nephropathie)
Dense deposit disease ggov Dense Deposit Disease
Autoinflammatory syndromes ggov AWMF Autoinflammatorische Syndrome
Hyper immunoglobulin D syndrome wiki Hyper Immunglobulin D Syndrom
Papa s syndrome Papa Syndrom
Macrophage activation syndrome Makrophagen Aktivierungs Syndrom
Neonatal onset multi system inflammatory disease (NOMID) Neonatal onset multi system inflammatory disease (NOMID)
Hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis wiki Hypocomplementemic Urticarial Vasculitis
Familial mediterranean fever ggov wiki Familiaeres Mittelmeerfieber
Gout ggov Gicht
Uric acid ggov Harnsaeure
Uric acid (Hyperuricemia) Harnsaeure (Hyperurikaemie)
nexist familial hyperuricemic nephropathy [235]
Uromodulin wiki Uromodulin
nexist hereditary renal hypouricemia [236]
nexist SLC22A12 URAT1 [237]
Crohn s disease AWMF Crohn Erkrankung
Structural Glomerulus
Kidney (FSGS) wiki Niere (FSGS)
ACTN4 [238]
Podocin Podocin
TRPC6 wiki TRPC6
Kidney (Minimal change nephrotic syndrome) wiki Niere (MCNS Lipoidnephrose)
nexist Kidney (CNS Finnish type) [239]
Nephrin [240]
nexist Kidney (Diffuse mesangial sclerosis) [241]
Alport s syndrome ggov wiki Alport Syndrom
nexist COL4A3 [242]
nexist COL4A4 [243]
nexist COL4A5 [244]
nexist COL4A6 [245]
Thin membrane disease wiki Glomerulopathie (Thin Membrane Disease)
Hereditary nephritis with macrothrombocytopenia ggov Hereditaere Nephritis mit Makrothrombozytopenie
Loin pain hematuria syndrome wiki Loin Pain Hematuria Syndrome
Nail patella syndrome Nail Patella Syndrom
nexist LMX1B LMX1B
nexist Kidney (Hematuria benign) [246]
nexist Proline (Hyperprolinemia) [247]
nexist Epstein Syndrome [248]
Charcot Marie Tooth disease ggov AWMF Charcot Marie Tooth Syndrom
Imerslund Grasbeck s syndrome Imerslund Grasbeck Syndrom
Hunter s Syndrome Hunter Syndrom
nexist Pierson Zenker syndrome [249]
nexist LAMB2 Laminn beta 2 [250]
nexist Collagenofibrotic nephropathy [251]
nexist Fibronectin Glomerulopathy [252]
Glomerulocystic nephropathy ggov Glomerulopathie (Glomerulozystische Nephropathie)
HNF1beta HNF1beta
Wilms Nephroblastomatosis Spectrum
nexist Aniridia Wilms syndrome [253]
Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome ggov wiki Beckwith Wiedemann Syndrom
Denys Drash syndrome ggov wiki Denys Drash Syndrom
WT1 wiki WT1
Frasier s syndrome ggov Frasier Syndrom
WT1 wiki WT1
nexist MULIBREY dysplasia [254]
Sotos s syndrome wiki Sotos Syndrom
WAGR syndrome wiki WAGR Syndrom
Hemihypertrophy wiki Hemihypertrophie
nexist Jadassohn linear sebaceous nevus [255]
nexist Nipples supernumerary [256]
nexist Perlman s syndrome [257]
Functional Tubulus Proximal and pRTA2 and Amioacidurias
Fanconi s syndrome wiki Fanconi Syndrom
Fanconi Bickel syndrome Fanconi Bickel Syndrom
Familial renal glucosuria Familiaere renale Glukosurie
SGLT2 [258]
Glucose galactose malabsorption Glukose Galaktose Malabsorption
SGLT1 [259]
nexist Gluco Glycinuria [260]
nexist Glucosuria with renal phosphate diabetes [261]
nexist Aminoacidurias [262]
Cystinuria wiki Zystinurie Cystinuria
nexist SLC3A1 [263]
nexist SLC7A9 [264]
nexist Hypercystinuria isolated [265]
nexist Dicarboxylic aminoaciduria [266]
nexist Hartnup s syndrome [267]
nexist SLC6A19 [268]
nexist Hyperdibasic aminoaciduria I [269]
Lysinuric protein intolerance wiki Lysinurische Protein Intoleranz
nexist Hyperhistidinuria [270]
nexist Iminoglycinuria [271]
nexist PAT1 [272]
nexist Alcaptonuria [273]
nexist Cystathioninuria [274]
nexist Glycinuria [275]
nexist Xanthinuria [276]
Xanthine Xanthin
Mitochondria (Mitochondriopathy) AWMF Mitochondrium (Mitochondriopathie)
nexist Cytochrome c oxidase deficiency [277]
Cytochrome c oxidase Cytochrome c oxidase
Kearns Sayre syndrome wiki AWMF Kearns Sayre Syndrom
Wolfram s syndrome [278]
nexist MERRF [279]
nexist NARP syndrome [280]
Leber s optic neuropathy wiki Leber optische Neuropathie
Leigh s syndrome Leigh Syndrom
Pearson s syndrome Pearson Syndrom
Alpers syndrome Alpers Syndrom
nexist Schwachmann Bodian syndrome [281]
Cystinosis wiki Zystinose
Lowe s syndrome wiki Lowe Syndrom
nexist Phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate phosphatase [282]
Fructose intolerance ggov wiki Fruktose Intoleranz
nexist Fructose 1 phosphate aldolase [283]
Tyrosinemia wiki Tyrosinaemie
Fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase wiki Fumarylacetoacetat Hydrolase
Galactosemia wiki Galaktosaemie
nexist Galactose 1 phosphate uridyl transferase [284]
Glycogenosis ggov wiki Glykogenose
Wilson s disease wiki AWMF Wilson Erkrankung
Metachromatic leukodystrophy AWMF Metachromatische Leukodystrophie
Osteopetrosis Osteopetrose
Carbonic anhydrase wiki Carboanhydrase
Fallot s tetralogy ggov Fallot Tetralogie
Functional Tubulus Na K Cl Tubulopathies Na K Cl
Aldosterone (Pseudohypoaldosteronism) Aldosteron (Pseudohypoaldosteronismus)
Ion channel (Sodium ENaC) wiki Ionenkanal (Natrium ENaC)
Receptor (Mineralcorticoid) Rezeptoren (Mineralkortikoid)
Gordon s syndrome Gordon Syndrom
WNK1 wiki WNK1
WNK4 wiki WNK4
Adrenal gland (Hypoplasia congenital) [285]
Bartter s syndrome ggov wiki Bartter Syndrom
nexist ROMK [286]
Barttin [287]
Gitelman s syndrome ggov wiki Gitelman Syndrom
nexist NCCT [288]
Liddle s syndrome wiki Liddle Syndrom
Ion channel (Sodium ENaC) wiki Ionenkanal (Natrium ENaC)
Dent s syndrome ggov wiki Dent Syndrom
CLCN5 wiki CLCN5
Apparent mineralocorticoid excess wiki Apparent Mineralocorticoid Excess
11 beta HSD2 wiki 11 beta HSD2
Glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism ggov wiki Glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism
nexist CYP11B2 aldosterone synthase [289]
Adrenal gland (Hyperplasia congenital) wiki AWMF Nebenniere (Hyperplasie kongenital)
nexist 17 alpha Hydroxylase [290]
nexist 11 beta Hydroxylase [291]
21 hydroxylase deficiency ggov wiki 21 Hydroxylase Mangel
Functional Tubulus Calcium/Magnesium Tubulopathies Calcium and Magnesium
Williams syndrome Williams Syndrom
Idiopathic infantile hypercalcaemia Idiopathic infantile hypercalcaemia
Hypocalciemic hypercalciuria autosomal dominant Hypokalziaemische Hyperkalziurie ad
Hypocalciuric hypercalciemia benign familial Hypokalziurische Hyperkalziaemie benigne familiaere
CASR ggov wiki CASR
Alkaline Phosphatase (Hypophosphatasia) Alkalische Phosphatase (Hypophosphatasie)
Milk alkali syndrome wiki Milch Alkali Syndrom
nexist Sclerema neonatorum [292]
nexist Blue diaper syndrome [293]
Hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis with hypophosphatemia Hypercalciuric Nephrolithiasis with Hypophosphatemia
Hypercalciuria idiopathic Hyperkalziurie idiopathisch
Bartter s syndrome ggov wiki Bartter Syndrom
Barttin [294]
hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets w hypercalciuria [295]
nexist Pseudotumoral calcinosis [296]
nexist GALNT3 [297]
FGF23 ggov FGF23
nexist Hypomagnesiemia congenital primary [298]
Magnesium (Hypomagnesiemia) wiki Magnesium (Hypomagnesiaemie)
CASR ggov wiki CASR
TRPM6 wiki TRPM6
Claudin16 Claudin16
nexist NCCT [299]
nexist ROMK [300]
Functional Tubulus Phosphate/cAMP
Hypophosphatemia X linked Hypophosphatemia X linked
McCune Albright syndrome McCune Albright Syndrom
Vitamin D dependent rickets1 AWMF Vitamin D abhaengige Rachitis1
1 alpha hydroxylase 1 alpha Hydroxylase
Vitamin D dependent rickets2 AWMF Vitamin D abhaengige Rachitis2
nexist Calcitriol resistance [301]
Hypophosphatemic ricketts AWMF Hypophosphataemische Rachitis
FGF23 ggov FGF23
Hypophophatemic rickets with hypercalciuria Hypophophatemic rickets with hypercalciuria
PTH (Pseudohypoparathyroidism) PTH (Pseudohypoparathyroidismus)
Pseudovitamin D deficiency rickets Pseudovitamin D deficiency rickets
nexist familial hypophosphatemic osteomalacia [302]
nexist AR rickets w craniostenosis ahbd deafness [303]
nexist Hypophosphatemic nonrachitic bone disease [304]
nexist Jansen s disease [305]
nexist Receptors (PTH) [306]
Functional Tubulus Concentration
Diabetes insipidus (nephrogenic) ggov wiki Diabetes insipidus (nephrogen)
nexist AVPR2 [307]
AQP2 wiki AQP2
Diabetes insipidus (BASKET) ggov wiki Diabetes insipidus (allg) Diabetes insipidus
Functional Tubulus Acidosis
Acidosis (renal tubular) ggov wiki Azidose (renal tubulaere) Renal tubular acidosis
nexist RTA2 proximal [308]
nexist NBC1 [309]
nexist Carboanhydrase II [310]
nexist RTA1 distal [311]
nexist AE1 [312]
nexist H ATPase A4 subunit [313]
nexist H ATPase B1 subunit [314]
Anemia (Sickle cell) wiki AWMF Anaemie (Sichelzellanaemie)
nexist Lightwood s syndrome [315]
nexist Butler Albright syndrome [316]
nexist dRTA w nerve deafness [317]
Familial hypercalciuric hypomagnesemia with nephrocalcinosis Familial hypercalciuric hypomagnesemia with nephrocalcinosis
Hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria familiar wiki Hypomagnesiaemie mit Hyperkalziurie familiaer
nexist Hyperglobulinemic states [318]
nexist RTA3 combined [319]
Ehlers Danlos syndrome ggov wiki Ehlers Danlos Syndrom
nexist Erythrocyte (Elliptocytosis) [320]
Adrenal gland (Hyperplasia congenital) wiki AWMF Nebenniere (Hyperplasie kongenital)
nexist RTA4 hyperkalemic [321]
Aldosterone (Pseudohypoaldosteronism) Aldosteron (Pseudohypoaldosteronismus)
nexist Chloride shunt defect [322]
remains to be sorted
Kidney (Aglomerular) ggov Niere (Aglomerulaer)
Myoglobulinuria acute recurrent of childhood Myoglobulinuria acute recurrent of childhood
Aicardi Goutieres syndrome ggov AWMF Aicardi Goutieres Syndrom
Urinary tract (Malformation) Harnwege (Fehlbildung)


Diabetic Nephropathy ggov Diabetes mellitus (Folgeerkrankungen Niere) Diabetic nephropathy


Kidney (Neoplasm) Niere (Neubildung)
RCC wiki Niere (Neubildung RCC)
Mesoblastic nephroma Niere (Neubildung Mesoblastisches Nephrom)
Nephroblastomatosis [323]
Wilms tumor wiki AWMF Niere (Neubildung Wilms Tumor) Wilms tumor


Obstructive uropathy wiki AWMF Harnwege (Obstruktive Uropathie)
Vesico ureteral reflux AWMF Harnwege (Vesiko ureteraler Reflux)
Ormond s retroperitoneal fibrosis Ormond Erkrankung

Tubulointerstitial and Tubular

Diseases of tubular and interstitial origin Niere (Erkrankungen tubulaer interstitiell)
Interstitial nephritis wiki Niere (Interstitielle Nephritis)
Papillar necrosis wiki Niere (Papillennekrose)
Phosphate nephropathy wiki Niere (Phosphat Nephropathie)
Tubulointerstitial nephritis with uveitis TINU Niere (Tubulointerstitielle Nephritis mit Uveitis TINU)
Kidney Cyst Niere (Zyste)
Diabetes insipidus (BASKET) ggov wiki Diabetes insipidus (allg)
Diabetes insipidus, nephrogenic ggov wiki Diabetes insipidus (nephrogen)
Fanconi s syndrome wiki Fanconi Syndrom

Mononephric state

Compensatory hypertrophy Niere (Kompensatorische Hypetrophie)

Progression and Aging

Fibrosis Niere (Fibrose)
Progression of renal disease Niere (Progression der Nephropathien) Progression of renal disease
Kidney Aging) Niere (Alterung)
Atubular glomerulus ggov Niere (Atubulaerer Glomerulus)
Therapeutic targets, compound and principles in fibrosis (few of the 200+ targets)
Nephroprotective renoprotective agents Nephroprotektiva
BMP ggov wiki BMP
BMP7 ggov wiki BMP7
Cyr61 ggov Cyr61
Endothelin ggov wiki Endothelin
Endothelin converting enzyme Endothelin Converting Enzyme
Vasopeptidase inhibitor Vasopeptidase Hemmer
Matrix metalloproteinase wiki Matrix Metalloproteinase
NADPH oxidase NADPH Oxidase
Nox1 Nox1
Nox2 Nox2
Nox3 Nox3
Nox4 Nox4
Nox5 Nox5
Duox1 Duox1
Duox2 Duox2
Osteopontin wiki Osteopontin
PON1 Paraoxonase1 PON1 Paraoxonase1
PON2 Paraoxonase2 PON2 Paraoxonase2
Pirfenidone wiki Pirfenidone
TGF beta wiki TGF beta
Receptor (TGF beta family) Rezeptoren (TGF beta Familie)
SMAD2 wiki SMAD2
SMAD3 wiki SMAD3
SMAD4 wiki SMAD4
SMAD7 wiki SMAD7
SnoN SnoN
Thrombospondin wiki Thrombospondin
Epithelio mesenchymal transition ggov Epithelio Mesenchymale Transition
Endothelio mesenchymal transition ggov Endothelio mesenchymale Transition
Fibrosis ggov wiki Fibrose
Liver (Fibrosis) Leber (Fibrose)
Lung (Fibrosis) Lunge (Fibrose)
Renal denervation therapeutic Nierendenervation therapeutische

Chronic kidney disease

Chronic renal failure ggov wiki AWMF Niere (Insuffizienz chronische)
Uremia Niere (Uraemie)
Uremic toxin Niere (Uraemisches Toxin)
Asymmetric dimethylarginine Asymmetrisches Dimethylarginin
Carbonyl stress ggov Carbonyl Stress
Nitrosative stress Nitrosativer Stress
Creatinine Kreatinin
Urea ggov wiki Harnstoff
Uroguanylin Uroguanylin
Guanylin Guanylin

Nephrotic Syndrome and Proteinuria

Proteinuria wiki Niere (Proteinurie)
Nephrotic syndrome [324] Nephrotic syndrome

Treatment Options


Hemodialysis (BASKET) ggov wiki Haemodialyse (allg)
Hemodialysis, continuous ggov Haemodialyse (kontinuierliche Verfahren)
Hemodiafiltration ggov Haemodiafiltration
KT over V wiki Haemodialyse (KT durch V)
Hemodialysis, Vascular access ggov Haemodialyse (Gefaesszugang)
Blood vessles, Vascular access AWMF Blutgefaess (Gefaesszugang)
Vena cava diameter Vena Cava und Volumenstatus
Peritoneal dialysis wiki Peritonealdialyse
Peritoneum (Peritonitis) Peritoneum (Peritonitis)
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis wiki AWMF Spontane bakterielle Peritonitis

Plasmapheresis and Extracorporal Immunotherapy and Serotherapy

Plasmapheresis Plasmapherese
Photopheresis AWMF Photopherese
Photodynamic oncologic treatment AWMF Photodynamische onkologische Therapie
Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy AWMF Photodynamische antimikrobielle Chemotherapie
LDL apheresis LDL Apherese
Intravenous immunoglobulin AWMF Intravenoeses Immunglobulin


Kidney Transplantation Niere (Transplantation)
Lymphocele Lymphozele
Transplant vasculopathy Transplantat Vaskulopathie
Transplantation wiki Transplantation
Living organ donor Transplantation (Lebendspender)
Non heart beating donor Transplantation (Non heart beating donors)


Nephrectomy Niere (Nephrektomie)
Nephrostomy Nephrostomie
Pyeloplasty Niere (Pyeloplastik)

Minimal Invasive and Interventional

Renal denervation therapeutic Nierendenervation therapeutische


Candidate Drugs and Drug Targets

Drug Targets Niere (Drug Targets)


Glucocorticoids ggov wiki Glukokortikoide

Anti Inflammatory and Innate Compounds and Redox

Antiinflammatory compounds wiki Antiinflammatorische Substanzen
Non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs wiki Nicht steroidales Antirheumatikum
Acetylsalicylic acid Aspirin ggov wiki Acetylsalicylsaeure ASS
Celecoxib Celecoxib
Etodolac Etodolac
Etoricoxib Etoricoxib
Meloxicam Meloxicam
Lumiracoxib Lumiracoxib
Rofecoxib Rofecoxib
Valdecoxib Valdecoxib
nexist Indometacin [325]
nexist Ibuprofen [326]
Tenidap Tenidap
Colchicine ggov Colchicin
N Acetylcysteine N Acetylcystein

Anti Inflammatory and Innate Biologicals

Anakinra Anakinra
TNF alpha antagonist TNF alpha Antagonist
Certolizumab ttTNFalpha wiki Certolizumab ttTNFalpha
Golimumab ttTNFalpha Golimumab ttTNFalpha
Infliximab ttTNFalpha wiki Infliximab ttTNFalpha
Eculizumab ttFactorH wiki Eculizumab ttFactorH

Anti Rheumatic Compounds

Cyclophosphamide ggov Cyclophosphamid
Hydroxychloroquine Hydroxychloroquin
Leflunomide Leflunomid
Malononitrilamide Malononitrilamid
Mizoribine Mizoribine
Gold ggov Gold
Auranofin ggov Auranofin
Chrysiasis Gold toxicology ggov Chrysiasis Goldvergiftung

Anti Rheumatic Biologicals

Biologicals (Pharmacology) wiki Biologicals (Pharmakologie)
Belimumab ttBLyS Belimumab ttBLyS
Ibritumomab tiuxentan yttrium ttCD20 Ibritumomab Tiuxentan Yttrium ttCD20
Omalizumab ttCD20 Omalizumab ttCD20
Tositumomab ttCD20 Tositumomab ttCD20
Ipilimumab ttCTLA4 Ipilimumab ttCTLA4
Tremelimumab ttCLTA4 Tremelimumab ttCTLA4
Ustekinumab ttIL12 ttIL23 Ustekinumab ttIL12 ttIL23

Immunopharmacology oui Transplantation

Anti thymocyte globulin ggov Antithymozytenglobulin
Basiliximab ttIL2R ggov wiki Basiliximab ttIL2R
Daclizumab ttIL2R ggov wiki Daclizumab ttIL2R
Belatacept ttCD80 ttCD86 Belatacept ttCD80 ttCD86
Bortezomib ttProteasom Bortezomib ttProteasom
Mycophenolic acid Mycophenolsaeure
Azathioprine ggov Azathioprin
AICAR 5 aminoimidazole 4 carboxamide 1 beta D ribofuranoside ttAMPK AICAR 5 aminoimidazole 4 carboxamide 1 beta D ribofuranoside ttAMPK
Ciclosporin ttMPT ggov Ciclosporin ttMPT
Everolimus Everolimus
FTY720 ggov wiki FTY720
Receptors (S1PR family) [327]
Rapamycin Rapamycin
Sirolimus Sirolimus
Tacrolimus FK506 Tacrolimus FK506

Immunopharmacology traditional of MCNS

(malaria) (akacia)
Cimetidine Cimetidin

some Monoclonal Antibodies, non-renal indications

Efalizumab ttLFA1 Efalizumab ttLFA1
Natalizumab ttIntegrinalpha4 Natalizumab ttIntegrinalpha4
Nimotuzumab ttEGFR Nimotuzumab ttEGFR
Pertuzumab ttHER2 Pertuzumab ttHER2
Trastuzumab ttHER2 Trastuzumab ttHER2
Racotumomab ttGangliosidAntiID Racotumomab ttGangliosidAntiID
Gemtuzumab ozogamicin ttCD33 Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin ttCD33
Palivizumab ttRSVirusFprotein AWMF Palivizumab ttRSVirusFprotein


Renin Angiotensin System and Aldosterone
Aliskiren ggov wiki Aliskiren
Angiotensin receptor blockers wiki RAAS (Angiotensin Rezeptor Blocker)
Candesartan Candesartan
Olmesartan Olmesartan
Telmisartan Telmisartan
ACE inhibitor ggov wiki RAAS (ACE Hemmer)
Captopril Captopril
Cilazapril Cilazapril
Enalapril Enalapril
Zofenopril Zofenopril
Vasopeptidase inhibitor Vasopeptidase Hemmer
Spironolactone wiki Spironolacton
Beta Blocker
Beta adrenergic antagonists ggov wiki Beta Blocker
Atenolol wiki Atenolol
nexist Bisoprolol [328]
Bopindolol Bopindolol
Carvedilol Carvedilol
Esmolol ggov wiki Esmolol
Levobetaxolol Levobetaxolol
nexist Metoprolol [329]
Nebivolol Nebivolol
Calcium Antagonists
Calcium antagonists Kalziumantagonist
Amlodipine ggov wiki Amlodipin
Cilnidipine Cilnidipin
Clevidipine Clevidipin
Efonidipine Efonidipin
Lercanidipine Lercanidipin
Nifedipine Nifedipin
Nitrosonifedipine Nitrosonifedipine
Pranidipine Pranidipin
Verapamil wiki Verapamil
Diuretic Agents
Diuretic agents (BASKET) wiki Diuretika (allg)
Diuretic agents, Loop wiki Diuretika (Schleifendiuretikum)
Frusemide [330]
Furosemide [331]
Amiloride wiki Amilorid
DThiazides wiki Diuretika (Thiazid)
Hydrochlorothiazide wiki Hydrochlorothiazid
Chlorothiazide Chlorothiazid
Indapamide Indapamid
Alpha Antagonists
Carvedilol Carvedilol
Clonidine Clonidin
Moxonidine Moxonidin
Hydralazine Hydralazin
Minoxidil Minoxidil
Nitroprusside Nitroprussid Natrium


Statins and Ezetimibe
Statin Statin
Simvastatin Simvastatin
Rosuvastatin Rosuvastatin
Atorvastatin Atorvastatin
Pitavastatin Pitavastatin
Ezetimibe ggov Ezetimib
Avasimibe Avasimib
Anacetrapib Anacetrapib
Niacin Niacin
Laropiprant Laropiprant
Fibrate Fibrat
Fenofibrate Fenofibrat
Fenofibric acid [332]
Bezafibrate wiki Bezafibrat

Uric Acid

Uricosurica Urikosurika
Allopurinol Allopurinol
Rasburicase Rasburikase
Urease Urease


Vasopressin V2 antagonists Vasopressin V2 Rezeptor Antagonist
Conivaptan wiki Conivaptan
Tolvaptan wiki Tolvaptan

PTH and Phosphorous and Osteology

Vitamin D wiki AWMF Vitamin D
25 hydroxycholecalciferol 25 hydroxycholecalciferol
1alpha dihydroxycholecalciferol 1alpha dihydroxycholecalciferol
Calcitriol [333]
Eldecalcitol Eldecalcitol
20 Epi 1 25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 20 Epi 1 25 dihydroxyvitamin D3
Calcium sensitizer Kalziumsensitizer
Cinacalcet ggov Cinacalcet
Colesevelam Colesevelam
Sevelamer Sevelamer
Lanthanum carbonate Lanthancarbonat
Strontium ranelate wiki Strontium Ranelat
Vitamin K wiki Vitamin K
Vitamin K2 wiki Vitamin K2
Osteobiologics Osteobiologics
Denosumab ttRANKL wiki Denosumab ttRANKL
Teriparatide Teriparatid
Zoledronic acid Zoledronic acid


Iron (Substitution) Eisen (Praeparate zur Substitution)
Vitamin B12 wiki AWMF Vitamin B12
Folic acid ggov Folsaeure
Vitamin C Vitamin C
Erythropoiesis stimulating agents wiki Erythropoiesis stimulating agents
Erythropoietin ggov Erythropoietin


Potassium binding resins Kationenaustauschharze Kaliumbinder

Antiviral Compounds

(Valaciclovir) (hepatitis cmpds...)
Antiviral agents Antivirale Wirkstoffe
Aciclovir Aciclovir
Ganciclovir Ganciclovir

Diagnostic Options


Kidney (Imaging) Niere (Bildgebung)
Kidney (CT) Niere (CT)
Kidney (MRT) Niere (MRT)
Kidney (Pyelography) Niere (Pyelographie)
Kidney (Sonography) Niere (Sonographie)
Kidney (Scintigraphy) AWMF Niere (Szintigraphie)


Kidney (Laboratory medicine) Niere (Labormedizin)
Urine analysis Niere (Urinanalytik)
Hematuria [334]
Glomerular filtration rate ggov wiki AWMF Niere (Glomerulaere Filtrationsrate) Measuring renal function
Cystatin C ggov Cystatin C Measuring renal function partially
NGAL NGAL Measuring renal function
KIM1 KIM1 Measuring renal function
IL-18 IL-18 Measuring renal function partially
Neopterin Neopterin
Autoantibodies (any)
Autoantibodies (BASKET) ggov wiki Autoantikoerper (allg)
Autoantibodies (protective) Autoantikoerper (protektive)
ANA Autoantikoerper ANA
ANCA wiki Autoantikoerper ANCA
Anti 17 hydroxylase Autoantikoerper Anti 17 Hydroxylase
Anti 200 100 Autoantikoerper Anti 200 100
Anti 21 Hydroxylase Autoantikoerper Anti 21 Hydroxylase
Anti 3 hydroxy 3 methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase Autoantikoerper Anti 3 hydroxy 3 methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase
Anti ACE2 Autoantikoerper Anti ACE2
Anti AChR Autoantikoerper Anti AChR
Anti alpha actinin Autoantikoerper Anti alpha Actinin
Anti aminoacyl tRNA synthetase anti ARS Autoantikoerper Anti Aminoacyl tRNA Synthetase Anti ARS
Anti Angiotensin II Receptor 1 Autoantikoerper Anti Angiotensin II Receptor 1
Anti Annexin V Autoantikoerper Anti Annexin V
Anti AQP4 Autoantikoerper Anti AQP4
Anti Aromatic L amino acid decarboxylase Autoantikoerper Anti Aromatic L Amino Acid Decarboxylase
Anti beta 2 glycoprotein I Autoantikoerper Anti beta 2 Glykoprotein I
Anti beta1 adrenorezeptor Autoantikoerper Anti Beta1Adrenorezeptor
Anti BP180 Autoantikoerper Anti BP180
Anti BPI Autoantikoerper Anti BPI
Anti C1q Autoantikoerper Anti C1q
Anti CADM140 MDA5 Autoantikoerper Anti CADM140 MDA5
Anti Caspr2 Autoantikoerper Anti Caspr2
Anti CASR Autoantikoerper Anti CASR
Anti CCP Autoantikoerper Anti CCP
Anti Centromere wiki Autoantikoerper Anti Centromer
Anti Desmoglein 3 Autoantikoerper Anti Desmoglein 3
Anti Desmosom Autoantikoerper Anti Desmosom
Anti dsDNA Anti ssDNA Autoantikoerper Anti dsDNA Anti ssDNA
Anti ENA extractable nuclear antigenes Autoantikoerper Anti ENA extrahierbare nukleaere Antigene
Anti Endomysium Autoantikoerper Anti Endomysium
Anti Endothelial cell Autoantikoerper Anti Endothelzelle
Anti Epiligrin Autoantikoerper Anti Epiligrin
Anti Erythropoietein Autoantikoerper Anti Erythropoietin
Anti Exosome Autoantikoerper Anti Exosom
Anti Factor VIII Autoantikoerper Anti Faktor VIII
Anti Flavoprotein subunit succinat dehydrogenase Autoantikoerper Anti Flavoprotein Subunit Succinat Dehydrogenase
Anti FSH Autoantikoerper Anti FSH
Anti Ganglioside GQ1b Autoantikoerper Anti Gangliosid GQ1b
Anti Ganglioside Autoantikoerper Anti Gangliosid
Anti GBM Autoantikoerper Anti GBM
Anti smooth muscle Autoantikoerper Anti glatte Muskelzellen
Anti Glutamate decarboxylase GAD65 Autoantikoerper Anti Glutamat Decarboxylase GAD65
Anti Glutamate receptor Autoantikoerper Anti Glutamat Rezeptor
Anti Golgi apparatus Autoantikoerper Anti Golgiapparat
Anti Histone Autoantikoerper Anti Histon
Anti IA2 islet cell antigen ICA512 Autoantikoerper Anti IA2 Islet Cell Antigen ICA512
Anti IgG hinge HAH Autoantikoerper Anti IgG Hinge HAH
Anti Insulin Autoantikoerper Anti Insulin
Anti Interferon alpha Autoantikoerper Anti Interferon alpha
Anti Interferon omega Autoantikoerper Anti Interferon omega
Anti Intrinsic factor Autoantikoerper Anti Intrinsic factor
Anti Ion Channel Potassium Autoantikoerper Anti Ionenkanal Kalium
Anti Islet antigen 2 IA2 Autoantikoerper Anti Islet Antigen 2 IA2
Anti Jka Autoantikoerper Anti Jka
Anti Jo1 Autoantikoerper Anti Jo1
Anti Laminin1 Autoantikoerper Anti Laminin1
Anti Lipoprotein Autoantikoerper Anti Lipoprotein
Anti Melanocortin 4 receptor Autoantikoerper Anti Melanocortin 4 receptor
Anti Melanoma differentiation associated gene5 Autoantikoerper Anti Melanoma differentiation associated gene5
Anti MuSK Autoantikoerper Anti MuSK
Anti NALP5 Autoantikoerper Anti NALP5
Anti NR2 Autoantikoerper Anti NR2
Anti Nucleolar Autoantikoerper Anti Nukleolaer
Anti p140 MJ Autoantikoerper Anti p140 MJ
Anti p155 p140 Autoantikoerper Anti p155 p140
Anti P450SCC Autoantikoerper Anti P450SCC
Anti Parietal cell Autoantikoerper Anti Parietalzelle
Anti PDC E2 Autoantikoerper Anti PDC E2
Anti PDGF receptor stimulatory Autoantikoerper Anti PDGF Rezeptor stimulierend
Anti phosphatidylserine prothrombin complex Autoantikoerper Anti Phosphatidylserin Prothrombin Komplex
Anti Phospholipid Anti Cardiolipin Anti beta 2 GP Autoantikoerper Anti Phospholipid Anti Cardiolipin Anti beta 2 GP
Anti PM SCL Autoantikoerper Anti PM SCL
Anti Prothrombin Autoantikoerper Anti Prothrombin
Anti Retina Autoantikoerper Anti Retina
Anti ribosomal P protein Autoantikoerper Anti ribosomales P Protein
Anti RNP Autoantikoerper Anti RNP
Anti Sa Autoantikoerper Anti Sa
Anti SAE Autoantikoerper Anti SAE
Anti Scl70 wiki Autoantikoerper Anti Scl70
Anti Sm Autoantikoerper Anti Sm
Anti SNRP Autoantikoerper Anti SNRP
Anti Spermatocyte Autoantikoerper Anti Spermatozyten
Anti SS A Ro Autoantikoerper Anti SS A Ro
Anti SS B La Autoantikoerper Anti SS B La
Anti Striatum Autoantikoerper Anti Striatum
Anti Th To Autoantikoerper Anti Th To
Anti Tissue transglutaminase wiki Autoantikoerper Anti Tissue Transglutaminase
Anti Topoisomerase I Autoantikoerper Anti Topoisomerase I
Anti TPO wiki Autoantikoerper Anti TPO
Anti Tumor associated Antigens Autoantikoerper Anti Tumor assoziierte Antigene
Anti Tyrosine hydroxylase Autoantikoerper Anti Tyrosin Hydroxylase
Anti Tyrptophan hydroxylase Autoantikoerper Anti Tyrptophan Hydroxylase
Anti UDP Glucuronyltransferase Autoantikoerper Anti UDP Glucuronyltransferase
Anti Zinc transporter 8 Autoantikoerper Anti Zinc Transporter 8
Anti Cytochrom P450 Autoantikoerper Anti Zytochrom P450
Lupus anticoagulans Autoantikoerper Lupus Antikoagulans
Rheuma factor Autoantikoerper Rheumafaktor


Kidney Biopsy) Niere (Biopsie) Kidney biopsy
Kidney Pathology) Niere (Pathologie)

Associated Disorders

PTH and Phospohorous Metabolism

Calcitonin wiki Calcitonin
Phosphatonin Phosphatonin
FGF23 ggov FGF23
Klotho Klotho
nexist sFRP4 [335]
nexist Matrix extracellular glycoprotein [336]
nexist FGF7 [337]
TRPV5 ggov TRPV5
Osterix Osterix
Parathyroid gland (BASKET) Nebenschilddruese (allg)
Parathyroid gland (Ectomy) Nebenschilddruese (Ektomie)
Parathyroid gland (Autotransplantation) Nebenschilddruese (Autotransplantation)
PTH (Hyperparathyreoidism BASKET) PTH (Hyperparathyreoidismus alle Formen)
PTH (Hyperparathyreoidism primary) AWMF PTH (Hyperparathyreoidismus Primaer)
PTH (Hyperparathyreoidism secondary) PTH (Hyperparathyreoidismus Sekundaer)
PTH (Hyperparathyreoidism tertiary) PTH (Hyperparathyreoidismus Tertiaer)
PTH (Hypoparathyreoidism) AWMF PTH (Hypoparathyreoidismus)
PTH (Parathyroid hormone) PTH (Parathormon)
PTH (Pseudohypoparathyroidism) PTH (Pseudohypoparathyroidismus)

Osteology and Vascular Calcification and Urolithiasis

Kidney (Osteopathy renal) Niere (Osteopathie renal)
Kidney (Vasculopathy calcification of chronic renal disease) Niere (Vaskulopathie Kalzifzierung CNI)
Calcification Kalzifizierung
Ossification heterotopic Ossifikation heterotop
Calcinosis Kalzinose
Calciphylaxis Kalziphylaxie
Nephrocalcinosis wiki Nephrokalzinose
Nephrolithiasis wiki AWMF Nierenstein
Bone Physiology
Bone GLA Protein Bone GLA Protein
Bone Sialoprotein Bone Sialoprotein
Dentine sialophosphoprotein Dentin Sialophosphoprotein
Dentin Dentin
Growth plate ggov Growth Plate
Hydroxyapatite Hydroxyapatit
Matrix Gla protein Matrix Gla Protein
Matrix vesicles Matrix Vesikeln
Osteoblasts Osteoblast
Osteocalcin wiki Osteocalcin
Osteogenic protein1 Osteogenic Protein1
Osteoclasts Osteoklast
Osteopontin wiki Osteopontin
Osteoprotegerin wiki Osteoprotegerin
Osteocytes Osteozyt
Sclerostin [338]

Somatic Growth Disorders

Catch up growth ggov Aufholwachstum
IGF1 wiki IGF1
Growth hormone Wachstumshormon


Anemia (Renal) Anaemie (Renal)
Iron Physiology
Hepcidin ggov wiki Hepcidin
HFE wiki HFE


Cardiorenal Syndromes Kardiorenales Syndrom
Arterial hypertension (Complications Kidney) Arterielle Hypertonie (Folgeerkrankung Niere)
Arterial Hypertension (Involvement of the Heart) Arterielle Hypertonie (Folgeerkrankung Herz)
Arterial Hypertension (Involvement of the Brain) Arterielle Hypertonie (Folgeerkrankung Gehirn)
Arterial hypertension (BASKET) ggov wiki AWMF Arterielle Hypertonie (allg)
Arterial Hypertension (hereditary) ggov Arterielle Hypertonie (hereditaer)
Arterial Hypertension (Model) ggov Arterielle Hypertonie (Tiermodell)
Atherosclerosis (BASKET) AWMF Atherosklerose (allg)
Atherosclerosis (peripheral vessels) AWMF Atherosklerose (Periphere arterielle Verschlusskrankheit)
Atherosclerosis (Carotids and Basilaris) AWMF Atherosklerose (Carotis Basilaris)
Atherosclerosis (Intracerebral) AWMF Atherosklerose (Intracerebral)
Atherosclerosis (Pulmonary circulation) Atherosklerose (Pulmonale AVK)
Heart (Coronary heart disease BASKET) ggov wiki AWMF Herz (Koronare Herzkrankheit allg)

Experimental Nephrology

Model Organisms and Disease Models

Kidney (Disease models) Niere (Erkrankungen Tiermodell) Kidney disease models
Kidney (Mesangiolysis) Niere (Mesangiolyse) Mesangium
Heymann s nephritis ggov Heymann Nephritis Heymann nephritis
Puromycin nephropathy
Adriamycin nephropathy
Protein overload nephropathy
Protamine sulfate effacement
LPS foot effacement
Dahl rat Dahl Ratte
DDY mouse DDY Maus
Aging rat

Technical Methods

Methods of experimental Nephrology Methoden der experimentellen Nephrologie Methods of experimental nephrology
Micropuncturing the nephron [339]
Structure determination at molecular level and finer wiki Methoden der molekularen und submolekularen Strukturanalyse
Structure determination between tissue level and single molecule localization and molecular imaging [340]
Genomic and genetic analysis wiki Methoden der systematischen Genomanalyse
Statistics and trial design wiki Statistik und Studiendesign

Cell biology

Cell cycle
Signal transduction
Developmental biology
Cell death
Cell stress

Basic Immunology (some selected topics)

Myeloid Cells

Basophils ggov wiki Basophiler Granulozyt
Mast cells wiki Mastzelle
Eosinophils ggov wiki Eosinophiler Granulozyt
Neutrophils wiki Neutrophiler Granulozyt
Myeloid derived suppressor cell Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cell
Macrophages wiki Makrophage
Monocytes wiki Monozyt
Dendritic cell (Immunology) wiki Dendritische Zellen (Immunsystem)
Myeloid dendritic cell [341]
Plasmacytoid dendritic cell [342]


Lymphocytes wiki Lymphozyt
B cell (Immunology) wiki B Zelle (Immunsystem)
B Cell (B1) wiki B Zelle (B1)
T cell (BASKET) wiki T Zelle (allg)
T cell (Th1) T Zelle (Th1)
T cell (Th2) T Zelle (Th2)
T cell (Th17) T Zelle (Th17)
T Cell (Th9) T Zelle (Th9)
T cell (CD4pos) T Zelle (CD4pos)
T cell (CTL) ggov wiki T Zelle (CTL)
T Cell (CD8pos CD28neg) T Zelle (CD8pos CD28neg)
T cell (CD8pos) T Zelle (CD8pos)
T cell (double negative) T Zelle (double negative)
T cell (gammadelta) wiki T Zelle (gammadelta)
NKT cells wiki NKT Zelle
NK cells wiki NK Zelle


Lymph node (BASKET) Lymphknoten (allg)
Lymph node (Anatomy) wiki Lymphknoten (Anatomie)
Spleen (BASKET) Milz (allg)
Speen (Marginal zone) [343]
Mucosa associated lymphatic tissue MALT MALT (Immunsystem)
Thymus (BASKET) wiki Thymus (allg)
Lymphatic system (Anatomy) wiki Lymphsystem (Anatomie)
Lymphatic system (Development) Lymphsystem (Entwicklung)
Immune system (Anatomy) Immunsystem (Anatomie)
Immune system (Development) Immunsystem (Entwicklung)

Antibodies IC Complement

Antibodies (BASKET) ggov wiki Antikoerper (allg)
Antibodies (Antiidiotypic) Antikoerper (Antiidiotypische)
Antibodies (Immunochemistry) Antikoerper (Immunchemie)
Antibodies (Immungenetics) wiki Antikoerper (Immungenetik)
Immunogenetics (Somatic hypermutation) Immunogenetik (Somatische Hypermutation)
Immunoglobulin A Immunglobulin A
nexist Immunoglobulin M [344]
Immunoglobulin G Immunglobulin G
Immunoglobulin G4 Immunglobulin G4
Immunoglobulin E Immunglobulin E
Immunoglobulin D Immunglobulin D
FcRn Neonatal Fc Receptor [345]
Immune complex Immunkomplex
Complement system wiki Komplementsystem
Complement system (Hypocomplementemia) Komplementsystem (Verbrauch)
Complement system (Deficiency) Komplementsystem (Mangel)
Factor H (Complement) Faktor H (Komplementsystem)
CD46 CD46

Immune reaction

Immune reaction (BASKET) wiki Immunreaktion (allg)
Immune reaction (T dependent) Immunreaktion (T Abhaengig)
Immune reaction (T independent) Immunreaktion (T Independent)
T cell receptor T Zell Rezeptor
HLA and MHC wiki HLA und MHC
HLA MHC Class I HLA MHC Klasse I
HLA MHC class Ib HLA MHC Klasse Ib
CD1D wiki CD1D

Tolerance and Immunity

Immunological memory wiki Immunologisches Gedaechtnis
Immune privilege Immunprivileg
Immune reconstitution Immunrekonstitution
Immune deviation Immundeviation
Organogenetic tolerance Organogenetic tolerance
Tolerance (Immunology) wiki Toleranz (Immunsystem)


Immunopharmacology Immunpharmakologie
Immunosuppressive agents wiki Immunsuppressiva


Vaccine (BASKET) wiki Impfstoff (allg)
Vaccine (Adjuvants) Impfstoff (Adjuvans)
Vaccine (Cellular) Impfstoff (Zellulaer)
Vaccine (Dendritic cell) Impfstoff (Dendritzelle)
Vaccine (Oncology) wiki Impfstoff (Onkologie)
DNA Vaccine Impfstoff (DNA basiert)
Vaccine (Passive) Impfstoff (Passivimpfung)
Vaccine regulation Impfwesen


Immunodeficiency (Inherited) ggov wiki AWMF Immundefizienz (Hereditaer)
Immunodeficiency (humoral) AWMF Immundefizienz (humoral)
Immunodeficiency (T cellular) wiki Immundefizienz (T Zelle)
Immunodeficiency (Severe combined immunodeficiency) wiki Immundefizienz (Severe combined Immunodeficiency)

Innate and Contact

Innate Immunity Innate Immunity Innate Immunity
CRP ggov wiki CRP
Mannose binding lectin [346]
nexist TLR6 [347]
Nod1 Nod1
Nod2 Nod2
NLR NOD like receptor NLR NOD like Receptor
PYRIN protein domain PYRIN Proteindomaene
Inflammasome Inflammasom Inflammasome

Inflammation Resolution

Inflammation resolution ggov Aufloesung der Entzuendung
Cholinergergic antiinflammatory pathway ggov wiki Cholinerger antiinflammatorischer Weg
Lipoxin wiki Lipoxin
Resolvin Resolvin
Resolvin D1 Resolvin D1

Some Cytokines

Interferon (BASKET) Interferon (allg)
Interferon alpha (Therapeutic use) Interferon alpha (als Medikament)
Interferon alpha and preliminary (BASKET) Interferon alpha und vorlaufig (allg)
Interferon beta Interferon beta
Interferon gamma Interferon gamma
Interleukin1 wiki Interleukin1
Interleukin1 receptor antagonist Interleukin1 Rezeptor Antagonist
Interleukin2 wiki Interleukin2
Interleukin4 wiki Interleukin4
Interleukin5 wiki Interleukin5
Interleukin6 ggov wiki Interleukin6
Interleukin10 wiki Interleukin10
Interleukin12 Interleukin12
Interleukin17 Interleukin17
Interleukin17A Interleukin17A
Interleukin17F Interleukin17F
Interleukin18 Interleukin18

Some Chemokines

MCP1 Monocyte chemotactic protein1 MCP1 Monocyte Chemotactic Protein1
Rantes wiki Rantes
Interleukin8 wiki Interleukin8

Biological Highlights for Nephrologists

Caveolin and caveoles ggov wiki Caveolin und Caveolen
Vesiculo vacuolar organelle Vesikulo vakuolaere Organelle
Heme oxygenase ggov Haemoxygenase
Cardiovascular risk Kardiovaskulaeres Risikoprofil
Natural products wiki Natural Products
Postexposition prophylaxis Postexpositionsprophylaxe
Sirtuin Sirtuin
SIRT1 wiki SIRT1
zzzPupil zzzPupil

Random on-tpoics

Tuberculosis Tuberkulose Tuberculosis
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